Maqsud Shah

Maqsud Shah (1864 – 1930) (Shah Mexsut, Chinese: 沙木胡索特) (Uyghur: مقصود شاه‎), was the Uyghur Jasagh Prince (Qinwang) of the Kumul from 1908 to 1930.

He succeeded his father Muhammmad Shah in 1908 as Khan of Kumul. The Khans were officially vassals to the Qing Dynasty Emperor of China, and every six years were required to visit Beijing to be a servant to the Emperor during a period of 40 days.

In 1912, Qing Dynasty was replaced by Republic of China, and Yang Zengxin became Governor in Xinjiang. Yang was a monarchist and supported the Khanate The Kumul maintained its status as a vassal Khanate of the Republic of China. In 1912 a rebellion also broke out against his oppressive rule. Maqsud spoke fluent Chinese. He had Chinese and Uyghur troops at his disposal. He sent melons as tribute to the Emperor. The Kumul Khanate was the only part of Xinjiang which was not opened to settlement by Han Chinese. All other parts were subject to settlement encouraged by the government.

Maqsud’s family was descended from Chaghatai Khan, and they ruled since the Ming Dynasty. Maqsud Shah was 47 years old in 1911. All the other Khans in Turkestan had gone, the Kumul Khanate was the only one left. Maqsud spoke Turki in Chinese accent and had Chinese clothing. Maqsud also drank enormous amounts of alcohol, and did not allow anyone to take pictures of him.

Maqsud Shah had Yulbars Khan, the Tiger Prince of Hami as his chancellor at court.

Twenty one Begs administered Kumul under the Khan, and he received 1,200 taels in silver from the Xinjiang government after he sent tribute. He was also called King of the Gobi. His son Nasir was designated as his heir.

When Yang Zengxin was assassinated in 1928, he was replaced by the intolerant Jin Shuren.

Upon Maqsud Shah’s death in 1930 Governor Jin Shuren replaced the Khanate with three normal provincial administrative districts Hami, Yihe, Yiwu. Nasir was not allowed to succeed him to the throne. This set off the Kumul Rebellion.