Murray Louis

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Murray Louis est un danseur, chorégraphe et pédagogue américain né à Brooklyn (New York) le et mort le à New York .

La carrière de Murray Louis est grandement influencée par le chorégraphe Alwin Nikolais, qu’il rencontre en 1949 lors d’un cours d’été donné par Hanya Holm. Il devient alors soliste pour la compagnie du chorégraphe avant de fonder en 1953 la Murray Louis Dance Company. Il devient par la suite codirecteur, avec Alwin Nikolais, de la Nikolais – Louis Foundation for dance, une organisation réunissant Nikolais Dance Theatre, Murray Louis Dance Company ainsi qu’une école.

Parallèlement à ses activités de danseur et chorégraphe, Murray Louis publie des essais, réalise des vidéos (Murray Louis in Concert) et des films (Dance as an Art Form, The World of Alwin Nikolais).

De 1975 a 1978, il collabore avec Rudolf Noureev pour qui il crée 3 ballets, Moment, Vivace et La Vénus de Brighton

En 2006, il reçoit un American Dance Festival Award pour l’ensemble de sa carrière.

Picture Post

Picture Post was a photojournalistic magazine published in the United Kingdom from 1938 to 1957. It is considered a pioneering example of photojournalism and was an immediate success, selling 1,700,000 copies a week after only two months. It has been called the UK’s equivalent of Life magazine.

The magazine’s editorial stance was liberal, anti-Fascist and populist and from its inception Picture Post campaigned against the persecution of Jews in Nazi Germany. In the 26 November 1938 issue a picture story was run entitled „Back to the Middle Ages“: photographs of Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels and Hermann Göring were contrasted with the faces of those scientists, writers and actors they were persecuting.

In January 1941 the Post published their „Plan for Britain“. This included minimum wages throughout industry, full employment, child allowances, a national health service, the planned use of land and a complete overhaul of education. This document led to discussions about post-war Britain and was a populist forerunner of William Beveridge’s November 1942 Report.

Sales of Picture Post increased further during World War II and by December 1943 the magazine was selling 1,950,000 copies a week. By the end of 1949 circulation had declined to 1,422,000.

Founding editor Stefan Lorant (who had also founded Lilliput and had even earlier pioneered the picture-story in Germany in the 1920s) had been succeeded by (Sir) Tom Hopkinson in 1940. Lorant, who had some Jewish ancestry, had been imprisoned by Hitler in the early 1930s, and wrote a best-selling book thereafter, I Was Hitler’s Prisoner. By 1940, he feared he would be captured in a Nazi invasion of Britain, and fled to Massachusetts, USA, where he wrote important illustrated U. S. histories and biographies.

New editor Hopkinson said his photographers were thoroughbreds, and whereas text could always be written after the event, if his photographers did not come back with good pictures, he had nothing to work with. Years later Hopkinson said the greatest photos he ever received to lay out were Bert Hardy’s images from the Korean War Battle of Incheon, which James Cameron wrote the article for. The magazine’s greatest photographers included Hardy, Kurt Hutton, Felix Man, Francis Reiss, Thurston Hopkins, John Chillingworth, Grace Robertson, and Leonard McCombe (McCombe eventually joined Life Magazine’s staff). Staff writers included MacDonald Hastings, Lorna Hay, Sydney Jacobson, J. B. Priestley, Lionel Birch, James Cameron, Fyfe Robertson, Anne Scott-James, Robert Kee, and Bert Lloyd; many freelancer writers contributed, as well, including George Bernard Shaw, Dorothy Parker, and William Saroyan.

On 17 June 1950 Leader magazine was incorporated in Picture Post. Editor Tom Hopkinson was often in conflict with (Sir) Edward G. Hulton, the owner of Picture Post. Hulton mainly supported the Conservative Party and objected to Hopkinson’s socialist views. This conflict led to Hopkinson’s dismissal in 1950 following the publication of Cameron’s article, with pictures by Hardy, about South Korea’s treatment of political prisoners in the Korean War.

By June 1952, circulation had fallen to 935,000. Sales continued to decline in the face of competition from television and a revolving door of new editors. By the time the magazine closed in July 1957, circulation was less than 600,000 copies a week.

Picture Post was digitised as The Picture Post Historical Archive, 1938-1957 and consists of the complete, fully searchable facsimile archive of the Picture Post. It was made available in 2011 to libraries and institutions.

As the photographic archive of Picture Post expanded through the Second World War, it became clear that its vast collection of photographs and negatives, both published and unpublished, were becoming an important historical documentary resource. In 1945, Sir Edward Hulton set up the Hulton Press Library as a semi-independent operation. He commissioned Charles Gibbs-Smith of the Victoria and Albert Museum to catalogue the entire archive using a system of keywords and classifications. The Gibbs-Smith system was the world’s first indexing system for pictures, and it was eventually adopted by the Victoria and Albert and parts of the British Museum collections.

When Picture Post folded, Sir Edward Hulton sold the archive collection to the BBC in 1957. It was incorporated into the Radio Times photo archive, and the BBC expanded the collection further with the purchase of the photo archives of the Daily Express and Evening Standard newspapers. Eventually, the BBC disposed of its photo archive and the BBC Hulton Picture Library was sold on once more, this time to Brian Deutsch, in 1988.

In 1996, the Hulton Picture Collection was bought by Getty Images for £8.6 million. Getty now owns the rights to some 15 million photographs from the British press archives dating back to the 19th century.

In 2000, Getty embarked on a large project to digitise the photo archive, and launched a dedicated website in 2001. A data migration programme began in 2003 and the Hulton Archive was transferred to the main Getty Images website; the Hulton Archive is still available today as a featured resource within the vast Getty holdings.

Rikkyo University

Rikkyo University (立教大学 Rikkyō daigaku?), also known as Saint Paul’s University, is a private university, located in Ikebukuro, Tokyo, Japan.

Rikkyo is known as one of the six leading universities in Tokyo (東京六大学 „Big Six“, Rikkyo University, University of Tokyo, Keio University, Waseda University Meiji University, and Hosei University). A leading liberal arts teaching and research institution, the university is the largest Anglican Christian affiliated university in Japan.

The university is internationally oriented and involved in numerous international programmes and projects. Rikkyo maintains contact with more than 70 educational institutions abroad for the purpose of exchanging lecturers, students and projects. With more than 700 students, come from outside Japan, the institution has 20,000 students, and 2,700 teachers and staff members.

Rikkyo Primary School, Rikkyo Ikebukuro Junior School, Rikkyo Ikebukuro Senior High School, Rikkyo Niiza Junior School, Rikkyo Niiza Senior High School are not affiliated with the Rikkyo University, but with the Rikkyo Gakuin. The Rikkyo Gakuin is an educational institution, which includes Rikkyo University and other affiliated schools. Also, Rikkyo School in England, St. Margaret´s School and St. Hilda’s School are related schools with the Rikkyo Gakuin.

The origins of the university date from the founding of St. Paul’s School for boys in 1874 by Channing Moore Williams, a missionary of the Episcopal Church and a leading figure in the establishment of the Anglican Church in Japan.

The school’s first classes were held in the home of Williams in the foreign settlement in Tsukiji, Tokyo. Initially five students came to study with the resident missionaries, but by the end of the first year this number had grown to fifty-five with as many as forty-six living in a dormitory facility rented by the school.

Fire devoured the first school buildings in 1876, but with funding from the Domestic and Foreign Mission Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and, in 1880, a new Principal, James McDonald Gardiner to supervise, new three-story brick facilities with an imposing 60-foot spire were constructed.

In 1891, Gardiner resigned from the management of the school and was succeeded by Rev. Theodosius Stevens Tyng. Simultaneous with the appointment of Rev. Tyng, the school’s name was changed from St. Paul’s School to St. Paul’s College, curriculum changes were introduced and a formal application was made for a government license. Enrollment jumped, but the school buildings at this time were in a poor state of repair and were condemned as unsafe by government inspectors. As President of the school Tyng immediately set off to the United States on a fundraising tour, but less than three weeks after his return to Tokyo an earthquake in 1894 leveled much of the original school facilities, highlighting the perils of building on reclaimed land next to the Sumida River. The college was temporarily housed in Trinity Parish House, but by 1896 new buildings including an academic hall and student dormitory were ready for occupation.

In 1897, the Rev. Arthur Lloyd became President of the University. The various Rikkyo schools experienced a rapid rise in student enrollment by virtue of the granting of a Government License exempting students from military service and granting them access to all Government established schools of Higher Education. Lloyd was successfully able to navigate the school through a turbulent six years as the Japanese Ministry of Education had sought to curtail any sort of religious instruction in the curriculum of government approved schools. As only in the dormitories at Rikkyo was any sort of religious instruction given, the school was able to retain its license.

In 1903, the Rev. Henry St. George Tucker succeeded Rev. Lloyd as University President. In 1905 the school reported a male student enrollment of five hundred and seventy-three and the need for larger school classroom facilities was acute. After another successful fundraising appeal new classrooms, an assembly hall and an office building were opened in 1907. The Rev. Charles S. Reifsnider succeed Rev. Tucker in 1912 when the latter took up his new post as Bishop of Kyoto.

In 1909, 23 acres of land were purchased near Ikebukuro for the construction of a larger dedicated campus and the university moved into new buildings at this site in 1919. The University Chapel was consecrated in 1920 and the university was officially chartered by the Ministry of Education in 1922.

The original, red-brick, campus buildings, designed by Murphy & Dana Architects of New York, suffered structural damage in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, but due to the university’s more suburban location escaped the devastating fires that destroyed much of the center of the city.

Until the 1920s almost all classes at Rikkyo were held in English, Japanese language textbooks only being made more widely available towards the end of the decade.

In the late 1930s and during the Second World War Rikkyo’s status as an Anglican Christian university came under severe pressure from the military authorities. In 1936, President of the University, Shigeharu Kimura, was forced to resign over allegations of disrespect during a required public reading of the Imperial Rescript on Education in the University Chapel. In September 1942, University trustees agreed to change the wording of the university’s charter to sever all ties with Christianity. The majority of Christian faculty members lost their positions and the University All Saints Chapel was closed.

At the end of the War in October 1945 the US Occupation authorities led by MacArthur moved swiftly to remove head officials associated with the teaching of militarism and the violation of the university’s founding charter. The university re-established its historic links with the Anglican Church in Japan and with the support of former faculty such as Paul Rusch began to restart classes, re-hire faculty and rebuild.

Women students were admitted for the first time to university degree programs in 1946.

A new library extension, designed by renowned Japanese architect Kenzo Tange, was completed in 1960.

With contributions from private donors, the Episcopal Church in the United States and the Japanese Ministry of Education, between 1961 and 2001 the university owned and operated a TRIGA 100Kw research reactor at Yokosuka, Kanagawa contributing the development of neutron radiography and energy research in Japan.

A second suburban campus in Niiza, Saitama for first and second year university students was established in 1990.

Building on existing undergraduate study programs, new graduate schools for Business Administration, Social Design Studies and Intercultural Communication were opened in 2002.

In September 2014, the Japanese Ministry of Education announced that Rikkyo University has been selected as a “Global Hub” University and will now receive special strategic government funding to support its global educational programs.

The Old Main Library, or Mather Library, located in the group of historic red brick buildings at the university’s main entrance, was built in 1918. The original library building was named in memory of Samuel Livingston Mather an American industrialist and long-time sponsor of Episcopal Church overseas mission work. Funds for the original building were donated by Samuel Mather in memory of his father. Further funding was also provided by Samuel Mather in 1925 to finance the cost of repairs to the building in the wake of the 1923 Great Kanto earthquake.

The university library buildings have been expanded over succeeding decades to include landmark buildings by Kenzo Tange and more modern structures to house collections containing over 1.7 million volumes of print and non-print materials. The university libraries also house specialist collections of the Protestant Episcopal Church and Edogawa Rampo.

Rikkyo is a co-educational university. As of 2009, female students outnumber male students overall; however, male students outnumber female students at the graduate level.

In common with most universities in Tokyo, Rikkyo holds an annual student-organized festival each Autumn. Known as the St. Paul’s festival, student clubs and societies provide entertainment, prepare food, organize sporting events and showcase academic work for the benefit of other students, prospective students, alumni as well as the local community.

Rikkyo’s baseball team plays in the Tokyo Big Six Baseball League. They have won 12 league championships in their history.

The following are famous alumni of St. Pauls:


Svenska Missionskyrkans Ungdom Scout

Svenska Missionskyrkans Ungdom Scout (SMU), commonly known as „SMU-scout“ was the Guide and Scout Organization of the Mission Covenant Youth of Sweden, and Sweden’s second largest Scouting organization with 18,500 members. The organization was co-ed and open to both boys and girls. Since 2007, all dutiess at national level within SMU have been transferred to the recently[when?] founded collaborative organization equmenia.

SMU-scout was the second largest member of the Swedish Scouting umbrella organization Svenska Scoutrådet, outnumbered only by Svenska Scoutförbundet. The members were distributed into 545 local Scout groups (kårer), which in turn are assembled in seven districts. These districts were shared with SMU’s mother denomination, the Mission Covenant Church of Sweden.

Since SMU-scout was an integral part of equmenia, the board of trustees in equmenia delegated the Scouting issues to a Scout Committee in order to deal with other issues as well. The remunerated chairman of the board, however, was also the chairman of the Scout Committee.

Since 2012 SMU-scout has been incorporated into Scouterna, the national Scouting and Guiding organisation of Sweden.

The organization had a campsite called Skräddartorp, Ludvika with accommodation for approximately 1,000 participants.

The programme for boys (Våra Pojkar) started in 1931 and for girls (Våra Flickor) in 1936. Boys and girls got the same name and programme in 1957 but still in different sections. The sections became co-ed in 1972. Nyingscout started in 1974 and Seniorscout in 1988.

In 1961, SMU-scout applied for membership in Svenska Scoutrådet, which was granted in 1963.

Лорд (певица)

Элла Мария Лани Йелич-О’Коннор

7 ноября 1996(1996-11-07) (19 лет)

Девонпорт, Окленд, Новая Зеландия

2012­­ — настоящее время

Новая Зеландия Новая Зеландия




арт-поп, инди-поп, дрим-поп, электроника

Universal, Republic Records, Lava


Элла Мария Лани Йелич-О’Коннор (англ. Ella Maria Lani Yelich-O’Connor; род. 7 ноября 1996, Девонпорт), более известная как Лорд (англ. Lorde) — новозеландская певица и автор песен.

Её дебютный сингл «Royals», вышедший в марте 2013 года и ставший лауреатом премии «Грэмми» за лучшую песню года, стал хитом по всему миру, возглавив национальные чарты Новой Зеландии, Италии, Великобритании, а также чарт Billboard Hot 100, что сделало Лорд единственным новозеландским исполнителем с подобным достижением. Дебютный альбом, Pure Heroine, записанный при участии продюсера Джоэля Литтла и вышедший 27 сентября 2013 года, был позитивно встречен критиками и дебютировал с третьей строчки в Billboard.


Östermalm ist einer der zentralen Stadtbezirke Stockholms, der Hauptstadt Schwedens. Der Stadtbezirk hat etwa 61.000 Einwohner.

Östermalm gliedert sich in folgende Stadtteile:

Hier befinden sich vor allem Wohnungen wohlhabender Einwohner. Auf dem Stureplan zentriert sich das Nachtleben Stockholms, da sich hier viele Clubs wie beispielsweise Spy Bar, Laroy oder Sturecompagniet befinden. Der Park Humlegården mit der königlichen Bibliothek und die Deutsche Schule Stockholm sind ebenfalls in Östermalm zu finden.

Auf dem Marktplatz Östermalmstorg befindet sich eine umstrittene Skulpturengruppe von Willy Gordon. Am südwestlichen Teil des Platzes liegt die Markthalle Östermalms Saluhall von 1888, der „Esstempel“ der Stockholmer. Die Storchen-Apotheke gegenüber der Elim Kyrkan ist die kulturhistorisch bedeutendste Apotheke in Schweden.

Der Stadtteil wird geprägt vom Gasverket (Gaswerk) und den dazugehörigen großen Gasometern. Hjorthagen ist ein von der Industrie geprägter Stadtteil. Die Wohnungen sind klein und es gibt fast ausschließlich Mehrfamilienhäuser. Der Lilla Värtan, ein Teil der Ostsee, bildet die Grenze zur Nachbargemeinde Lidingö. Die Lidingöbrücke ist die einzige Verbindung für Autos zwischen Stockholm und Lidingö. Kurz vor der Brücke liegt in Ropsten auf der Stockholmer Seite die Endstation der Linie T13 der Stockholmer U-Bahn (schwedisch tunnelbana) sowie die Bezahlstationen für die Citymaut.

Ladugårdsgärdet ist zwar der offizielle Name, doch wird der Stadtteil von den meisten Menschen nur mit Gärdet abgekürzt. Auch die dazugehörige U-Bahn-Station trägt den Namen Gärdet. Geprägt wird der Stadtteil einerseits von der Hauptstraße nach Lidingö und den angrenzenden Hafenanlagen, Värtahamnen und Frihamnen sowie andererseits von großen Parkanlagen. Der Stadtteil selbst entstand 1926, nachdem der Stadtteil Östermalm zu groß geworden war und geteilt wurde. Unter anderem liegen hier der Fernsehturm, Kaknästornet, verschiedene Museen wie das Technische Museum, das Armeemuseum, das Polizeimuseum, das Sportmuseum und Einrichtungen des Militärs.

Im südwestlichen Teil grenzt Ladugårdsgärdet an das Diplomatenviertel mit der Diplomatstaden und verschiedenen Botschaften für unter anderem die USA, Deutschland, Finnland, Norwegen und Japan. Hier befinden sich auch die Hauptbüros und Studios für Sveriges Radio und Sveriges Television.

Eine dichtere Bebauung findet sich nur im südwestlichen Teil von Djurgården. Ansonsten besteht die Insel aus Parkanlagen und vereinzelten Villen sowie staatlichen Institutionen. Ein Großteil des Westteils der Insel wird vom Freilichtmuseum Skansen eingenommen.

Das Gebiet war früher königliches Jagdgebiet. Heute ist es mit Ausnahme des Gebietes um die KTH und Ruddammen Teil des Ekoparken, der weltweit erste städtische Nationalpark. Im südlichen Teil liegt in der Nähe der KTH das alte Olympiastadion von 1912 und im nördlichen Teil des Stadtteils liegt die Universität Stockholm mitsamt einigen Naherholungsgebieten. Da der Stadtteil im Norden die Grenze zur Nachbargemeinde bildet, befindet sich auch hier eine Bezahlstation für die Citymaut.


Älvsjö | Bromma | Enskede-Årsta-Vantör | Farsta | Hägersten-Liljeholmen | Hässelby-Vällingby | Kungsholmen | Norrmalm | Östermalm | Rinkeby-Kista | Skarpnäck | Skärholmen | Södermalm | Spånga-Tensta

Valley Industry & Commerce Association

Kevin Tamaki, Chairman and

The Valley Industry & Commerce Association (VICA) is a business group in the San Fernando Valley, California

The San Fernando Valley, in Northwest Los Angeles County, is a diverse and thriving economy consisting of entertainment, manufacturing, retail, international trade, healthcare, tourism, aviation, academia, financial services, goods movement, aerospace, and more.

Since 1949, VICA has served as the San Fernando Valley’s leading voice on business issues through advocacy efforts at all levels of government.

The mission of VICA is to enhance the economic vitality of the greater San Fernando Valley region by advocating for a better business climate and quality of life. With its knowledge of the legislative process and economic issues, VICA’s access to public officials ensures that the San Fernando Valley’s business perspective will be heard in the interest of improving our business climate and quality of life. With input and guidance from its members, VICA maintains a regular presence at all levels of government to effectively represent Valley businesses.

VICA is led by a board of directors, composed of many of the top business leaders in the San Fernando Valley region and chaired by Kevin Tamaki (AT&T). VICA’s chief staff member is President Stuart Waldman.

VICA’s advocacy efforts originate in its policy committees (divided up by issues, such as Healthcare and Transportation). Members discuss and determine positions on various policies, which are ultimately voted on by the VICA board. VICA advocates on these issues through written or oral testimony, and meetings with officeholders locally, in Sacramento, or in Washington, D.C.

Among the key components of VICA’s advocacy strategy are legislative trips to Washington, D.C. and Sacramento, and frequent events bringing together officeholders and business leaders.

VICA also organizes an annual public policy conference attended by 450-550 business leaders and government officials, among other events.

VICA has been called „the Valley’s most powerful business group“ by L.A. Daily News reporter Rachel Uranga, and received similar recognition from the L.A. Weekly.

Maryam Hooleh

Maryam Hooleh (born 1978) is an Iranian writer and poet. Maryam Hooleh, a young Iranian Kurd and one of the most gifted poets of her generation who now lives in Sweden, is one of these writers who—for some time now—have turned into thorns in the side of the Iranian regime. The profoundly uninhibited and confrontational style of Hooleh’s poetry has daringly exposed the crude disregard of the Islamic regime for human life. It has also drawn attention to the bodies of women, the most manifest objects of repression by the regime. At the same time, this confrontational style can provide ammunition for a damaging assault on the mullahs’ regime. Her works have usually dark and ironic atmosphere and abstract language where no signifier refers back to its usual signified; her works are questioning religious and cultural taboos and criticize human condition in the postmodern world, and her poetry is usually labeled by postmodernism.

Hooleh was born in Tehran. She began to write at an early age. At the age of seventeen, Hooleh travelled from Iran to Greece, illegally and on foot. It took 23 days to make the trip to Athens. She stayed one year and then returned to Iran. Mansoureh Saboori, an American director and filmmaker, made a documentary about her life, her poems and her trip to Greece which is called Another Birth. (“Another birth” is also the name of a book written by Iranian poet Forugh Farrokhzad.)

Hooleh’s first book, The kite will never fly in my hands, was published in 1998 by Midland Graphic publishing in Chicago and her second book, In the Alleys of Athens, was published in 1999 by the Mir-Kasra publishing house in Tehran.

In 2000 Hooleh was invited by The Iranian Women Studies Foundation to Sweden where her third book, Cursed Booth, was published by Baran publications. In 2003 she won a literary scholarship from Swedish PEN and moved to Sweden. Her fourth and fifth books, Contemporaneous leprosy and Hell INC, were published by Arzan publications in 2004 and her sixth book, The Sticky Dreams of a Banished Butterfly, was published over the net as a E-book and Audio Book. Her poetry has also been among the most selected works for translation in anthologies.

Hooleh’s poems have been translated to English, Swedish, French, Kurdish, Turkish and some other languages, and she was one of the poets invited to the Struga Poetry Evnings in 2014.

Jelena Michailowna Samolodtschikowa


Jelena Michailowna Samolodtschikowa (russisch Елена Михайловна Замолодчикова; * 19. September 1982 in Moskau, Sowjetunion) ist eine ehemalige russische Kunstturnerin. Sie war zweifache Olympiasiegerin.

Samolodtschikowa begann bereits im Alter von sechs Jahren mit Geräteturnen. Ihre ersten internationalen Wettkämpfe von Bedeutung waren die Turn-Weltmeisterschaften 1999 in Tianjin. Dort gewann sie im Pferdsprung und wurde Dritte im Einzelmehrkampf. Im Mannschaftsmehrkampf resultierte eine Silbermedaille.

Bei den Olympischen Spielen 2000 in Sydney nahm Jelena Samolodtschikowa an sechs Wettbewerben teil und gewann drei Medaillen. Sie gewann die Einzelwettbewerbe im Pferdsprung und am Boden und mit der russischen Mannschaft wurde sie Zweite im Mannschaftsmehrkampf. Vier Jahre später an den Olympischen Spielen in Athen gewann noch eine Bronzemedaille im Mannschaftsmehrkampf. Im Pferdsprung platzierte sie sich auf dem 4. Rang.

Samolodtschikowa ist auch zweifache Weltmeisterin. Nach 1999 wurde sie bei Turn-Weltmeisterschaften 2002 in Debrecen nochmals Weltmeisterin im Pferdsprung.

1952: Ágnes Keleti | 1956: Larissa Latynina und Ágnes Keleti | 1960: Larissa Latynina | 1964: Larissa Latynina | 1968: Věra Čáslavská und Larissa Petrik | 1972: Olga Korbut | 1976: Nelli Kim | 1980: Nelli Kim und Nadia Comăneci | 1984: Ecaterina Szabó | 1988: Daniela Silivaș | 1992: Lavinia Miloșovici | 1996: Lilija Podkopajewa | 2000: Jelena Samolodtschikowa | 2004: Cătălina Ponor | 2008: Sandra Izbașa | 2012: Alexandra Raisman | 2016: Simone Biles

Liste der Olympiasieger im Turnen

1952: Jekaterina Kalintschuk | 1956: Larissa Latynina | 1960: Margarita Nikolajewa | 1964: Věra Čáslavská | 1968: Věra Čáslavská | 1972: Karin Janz | 1976: Nelli Kim | 1980: Natalja Schaposchnikowa | 1984: Ecaterina Szabó | 1988: Swetlana Boginskaja | 1992: Lavinia Miloșovici und Henrietta Ónodi | 1996: Simona Amânar | 2000: Jelena Samolodtschikowa | 2004: Monica Roșu | 2008: Hong Un-jong | 2012: Sandra Izbașa | 2016: Simone Biles

Liste der Olympiasieger im Turnen

Honda Type R

Les Honda Type R sont les modèles sportifs les plus performants du constructeur Honda automobile. Shigeru Uehara, ingénieur développement des modèles sport, et Nobuhiko Kawamoto, PDG de Honda de 1990 à 1998, furent à l’origine de ce programme.

Les Type R (R pour « Racing ») ont été pensées pour la course, avec un minimum d’équipement pour un poids minimum, et un maximum de performance. Au début, les Type R étaient destinées à la course, puis, elles furent lancées sur un marché plus large, ouvert au public à la recherche d’automobiles sans concessions. Pour le constructeur japonais, la gamme R est un moyen de profiter de l’expérience et la notoriété acquises en F1. Elles ont la réputation d’avoir un très bon moteur capable de régime de rotation très élevé (équipées du système VTEC), un châssis performant et des suspensions à la hauteur.

La tradition veut que les Type R soient de couleur blanche (Championship White) avec un logo Honda rouge en référence à la première victoire de Honda en F1. Celle-ci eu lieu au grand prix du Mexique en 1965 remportée par la RA 271 qui portait cette couleur. Elles portent aussi de logos type R sur les flancs et la malle arrière. Pour ce qui est de leur finition intérieure, leur signature est la présence de sièges baquets Recaro, d’un volant Momo et d’un pommeau de levier de vitesse en titane.

Le célèbre pilote automobile belge Paul Frère a participé à la mise au point des premiers modèles.

C’est la première de la lignée des type R. 120 kg, c’est le poids gagné par la NSX type R sur son homologue de base qui elle-même était très légère de par sa structure totalement composée d’aluminium. Capots avant, arrière et aileron sont en carbone. Une partie de la tringlerie de boite est en titane. Elle est débarrassée de ses insonorisants mais est dotée de jantes Enkei en magnésium, de baquets en carbone Recaro SP-A et d’un volant Momo. Son moteur lui gagne 6 chevaux.

Elle a été produite de 1992 à 1995 à 483 exemplaires.






Prix de vente neuf (prix approximatif et hors taxe): 13 000mil ¥ (soit environ 97 000 €)

Présentée dès 1994 sur les marchés japonais et américain, elle fait son entrée sur le marché français au printemps 1998. Elle n’y sera diffusée que deux ans à environ 400 exemplaires.

En décembre 1998, elle est élue sportive de l’année par le magazine de sport automobile Échappement devant la Hommell berlinette RS et le BMW Z3 M.


Ces caractéristiques font que ce moteur se révèle souple à bas régime mais vigoureux dans les tours. En effet il dévoile un caractère affirmé à haut régime quand le V-TEC se déclenche et produit la sonorité typique d’un moteur de course en délivrant tout son couple et toute sa puissance. La vitesse linéaire de ses pistons, 24,4 mètre par seconde, le rapproche des blocs de grand prix.



Ce châssis permet à la Honda intégra de faire preuve de motricité et d’agilité. Son comportement dynamique est proche de celui d’une propulsion ce qui est rare pour une traction. Le but des ingénieurs HONDA était de la rendre efficace sur route et circuit tout en procurant sensation et plaisir à son conducteur.




L’Integra type R était disponible uniquement dans sa robe blanche et ses sièges baquets Recaro SR rouges en France. Mais dans les autres pays d’Europe, le choix de la teinte s’étendait au noir, rouge, jaune,de même pour les sièges baquets disponibles. Elle était aussi équipée d’un volant Momo Daytona 3 gaîné de cuir et d’un pommeau de levier de vitesse en titane.

Tous les modèles reçoivent une plaque numérotée placée sous le levier de frein à main.

Honda Civic VII Type R (EP3) (2001-2006) et Version 1999 et 2000 (EK9) sont aussi disponibles dans le modèle à hayon.







Prix de vente neuf: 23 000 €

Version 30e anniversaire : Série spéciale vendue en Europe pour fêter les 30 ans de la Civic. Plus de 400 points de modifications avec la version normale ; ça va des joints de vitres aux ressorts de soupapes. Elle hérite du look de la version JDM avec des baquets Recaro rouges, tapis de sol rouge, des vitres arrière teintées noires, un levier de vitesse en titane et un volant Momo.

Au niveau mécanique, ses caractéristiques restent les mêmes et elle a été allégée de 10 kg par rapport à la version normale (sans doute la différence de poids des baquets). Les couleurs dispos : gris clair, noir et rouge.

Prix de vente neuf : 24 200 €

Performances : d’après le constructeur, vitesse maxi: 235 km/h ; 0 à 100 km/h : 6,6 s ; 400 m DA: 15,03 s

Prix de vente neuf : 30 800 €

Honda Accord VI Type R (1999 – 2001) :

Elle a été présentée au salon de Paris en 1998 et est le fruit du travail de l’équipe de Kenzo Suzuki. Ainsi Honda fait son entrée dans la catégorie des familiales sportives. Son moteur 4 cylindres VTEC lui procure des performances de haut niveau et lui permet de tenir tête à des modèles semblables équipés de 6 cylindres. Grâce à une mise au point châssis très fine, cette berline fait preuve d’une grande agilité. Son secret ? une caisse rigide, un train avant incisif et un autobloquant pour une motricité parfaite.

Elle est la type R des bons pères de famille.




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